“In every democratic power, a fortiori in every ‘pure’ democratic power, that is to say where there is no delegation (from above), there is a hidden oligarchy which is both contrary to its principles and indispensable to its functioning…the explanation of jacobinism is the ‘machine’ hidden within the shade of the people.

For if democracy is characterized by an egalitarian relationship of each member of the social body to ideas, the real action animating it and the need to throw up powers or a power are incompatible with the egalitarianism of the system.

“But when those powers are those of a representative regime, that is elected on terms of public competition with different choices to the citizens, then it is an organizational precondition of the competition that it be in the hands of specialists in ‘politics’ who make a career of manipulating public ‘opinion‘. For the price to be paid for the fiction of pure democracy is the reverse side of ideology, the omnipotence of the machine, the ‘inner circle’ of that society or organization which prefabricates the consensus of opinion and monopolizes its exploitation. It is an anonymous oligarchy of obscure mediocrities who are successively interchangeable”.— Francois Furet, Thinking the French Revolution, Pp 228-229. Emphasis added.

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